An introduction to the vital role of neurotransmitters
Each type has a different appearance and is located on different parts of the neurons under its influence. It is speculated to have a role in depression, as some depressed patients are seen to have lower concentrations of metabolites of serotonin in their cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.
PharmacolTher ; J Neurosci ; RC The role of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA has long been regarded as Centre for the regulation of anxiety and this neurotransmitter system is the main target of benzodiazepines and other anxiety related drugs used to treat anxiety disorders.
Here, electrical signals that have travelled along the axon are briefly converted into chemical ones through the release of neurotransmitters, causing a specific response in the receiving neuron. In general though not necessarily exclusivelyneurons use only one neurotransmitter to 'send' information and are thus either excitatory or inhibitory - they are termed glutamatergic or GABAergic, respectively.
Therefore, the effects of a neurotransmitter system depend on the connections of the neurons that use the transmitter, and the chemical properties of the receptors that the transmitter binds to.
How neurotransmitters work
EurNeuropsychopharmacol ; — Behavioral symptom associated with the anxiety disorders includes avoidance, in which specific stimuli was avoided by the individual e. Research has shown that patients with endogenous depression have low plasma levels of tryptophan, a precursor of serotonin. In this "open the gates" strategy, the excitatory message is like a racehorse ready to run down the track, but first the inhibitory starting gate must be removed. In addition to L-glutamate and GABA, there are a whole range of other neurotransmitters and their receptors acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and many others that also perform vital functions in the central nervous system, some of which are excitatory and some of which are inhibitory. Bank P, Franks NP, Dickinson R: "Competitive inhibition at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediates xenon neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia". Evidence for stroke-induced neurogenesis in the human brain. Researchers agree that glutamate excitotoxicity undoubtedly has a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, the most common neurodegenerative pathology affecting the elderly population. The potential role of NAS analogues is in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Preoperative anxiolytic effects of melatonin found a significant reduction in anxiety.
Norepinephrine directly activates adult hippocampal precursors via beta3-adrenergic receptors. Adrenal steroids and N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation regulate neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rats through a common pathway.
based on 78 review